Sunday, June 10, 2018

Pyramid Creek Loop Trail

One of the unnamed Pyramic Creek waterfalls next to the loop trail  (June 3, 2018)

The Pyramid Creek Loop Trail is your trail loop to access the Desolation Wilderness boundary and nearby Horsetail Falls—a waterfall named for its series of waterfalls of the horsetail type.

The distance from the Pyramid Creek Trailhead to the beginning of the loop is about half a mile. If you decide to hike the loop counter-clockwise, you will reach The Cascades viewing point after a quarter-mile climb. This is a spectacular site, especially during springtime. Here, the water of Pyramid Creek slides down over solid granite.

The Cascades
From the Cascade Vista the trail continues over rock slabs and through scattered forest, never far away from the twisting course of Pyramid Creek. While you climb up the canyon and eventually veer away from the creek, you will enjoy amazing (over)views of the stepped granite headwall with Horsetail Falls cascading downwall in stages through the granite cleft. Keep the waterfall ahead of you, and you will not get lost.

Looking north over a rock slab with Horsetail Falls still at a distance

At the wilderness boundary, you are asked to self-register for a day-use permit. Unclear in places, the trail either follows the riparian creek canyon or leads around granite blocks and over rock slabs. Keep scrambling up the slopes to the base of the waterfall—browsing over the glacier-carved granite faces in front of you. Find your spot to rest, relax and listen to the roaring water.

At the base of  Horsetail Falls

Map of Pyramid Creek Loop Trail including The Cascades


Getting to the Pyramid Creek Trailhead

The trailhead is located next to Highway 50, less than seven miles west of Echo Summit. The trailhead parking lot is well-marked. The parking fee for a day currently is $5.00.


 

 

References and more to to explore

[1] Pyramid Creek Cascades, El Dorado County, California, United States. World Waterfall Database.   Link: www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com/waterfall/Pyramid-Creek-Cascades-7183.

[2] Rick: Horsetail Falls: A challenging hike to an imressive waterfall. CalEXPLORnia, August 11, 2014. Link: www.calexplornia.com/horsetail-falls-a-challenging-hike-to-an-impressive-waterfall.

[3] Stephen Berei: Watch your step hiking Horsetail Falls. Lake Tahoe All Access, May 25, 2013. Link: stephenberei.wordpress.com/2013/05/18/watch-your-step-hiking-horsetail-falls.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Townsend's big-eared bats at Kentucky stamp mill

General bat anatomy displayed on a board in the Kentucky Mine Historic Park: the distinct Townsend's big-eared bat has horseshoe-shaped lumps on the nostrils and long ears joining at the base
The stamp mill at the Kentucky Mine Historic Park in Sierra City, California, hosts a maternity colony of Townsend's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii)—a cave-dwelling species that occasionally roosts in man-made structures. The bats of the Kentucky colony have acclimated to local conditions tolerating a certain level of disturbance such as human spectators and short exposure to stamping noise, happening for short times while demonstrating the function ore-crushing stamps to visitors.

Townsend's big-eared bats are named for their extremely long and flexible ears. But there is more in the long common name. The species name—also the shorter scientific name—commemorates the American naturalist and collector John Kirk Townsend (1809-1851), who, in the first half of the 19th century, explored the wildlife between the Rockies and the Pacific Ocean [1]. Various subspecies are found throughout western North America between British Columbia and Mexico.

Corners and crevices of the stamp mill at the historic Kentucky Mine serve as roosting sites for Townsend's big-eared bats
Corynorhinus townsendii is protected under the California Endangered Species Act [2]. Threats include habitat destruction and potential introduction of the white-nose syndrom. Although once created by humans for a noisy business, the Kentucky stamp mill is a a safe refuge for this endangered bat species. A tour guide at the mine park informed me that the “Kentucky stamp mill bats” do not migrate. Townsend's big-eared bats prey on moths but may include some other insects in their diet: They (and also other bats) offer natural pest control by eating insects that may otherwise attack crops or forest land.

Female Townsend's big-eared bats rear their young in maternity colonies. A handout provided at the Kentucky Mine Museum in the Bigelow House describes their mating and breeding cycle:

Mating begins in the fall and continues through the winter. Townsend's big-eared bats have delayed fertilization, storing sperm until ovulation occurs in the spring. In March or April the females begin to form maternity colonies, where theyr rear their young. During the maternity season, males remain solitary or form small bachelor groups. The length of gestation varies depending on the climate, but generally lasts between 56 to 100 days. Females give birth to a single young, called a pup. The babies develop rapidly: they are able to fly by three weeks, nearly grown by four weeks and weaned by six weeks. Females return to the same roost where they were raised to give birth to their own young. Males and females spend the winter together to hibernate.


References and suggested reading

[1] Bo Beolens, Michael Watkins and Michael Grayson: The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 2009; page 416.

[2] Noah Greenwald: Townsend's Big-eared Bat Protected Under California Endangered Species Act. Center for Biological Diversity, June 27, 2013. Link: www.biologicaldiversity.org/news/press_releases/2013/townsends-big-eared-bat-06-27-2013.html.

[3] Gary M. Feller and Elizabeth D. Pierson: Habitat Use and Foraging Behavior of Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus Townsendii) in Coastal California. Journal of Mammology, February 2002, 83 (1), 167-177. Link: https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article/83/1/167/2372774.  

Monday, May 28, 2018

Kentucky Mine Historic Park


Trestle top entrance for ore cars (and now visitors) into Kentucky Mine stamp mill

The Kentucky Mine Museum and Historic Park opened over the Memorial Day Weekend to kick off its 2018 season. I joined the Sunday morning hour-plus tour to see the inside of the stamp mill. The staircase walk down inside the stamp mill is the highlight, but during the tour one also gets access to the Kentucky Portal and a replica of a miners cabin. I really enjoyed to hear the local mining history as told by the tour guide, who also demonstrated how the displayed tools—mining as well as household tools—were used during the gold-mining days.

Kentucky Portal and replica of a miners cabin
Display sites of mining equipment and buildings are connected by paved trails or gravel paths. Next to the beginning of the trestle railway is a bench inviting you to rest awhile in memory of David Eugene Smith (1948-2013), a gold miner and storyteller. From there, you will have an excellent view of the Kentucky Portal, the miners cabin and an old trommel in the middle of the “plaza” between cabin and stamp mill.

trommel for gold mining
Trommel with miners cabin in background
Our tour guide and her daughter performed snake-checks before letting us enter the portal in front of the adit and the multiple-floor stamp mill. Inside the portal, we got to see an operating pelton wheel. I was surprise how fast it was spinning and got sprinkled with water while coming close to it. The adit is connected with the upper floor of the stamp mill by rail, on which ore cars where transporting ore over the trestle into the hopper room above the grizzley to dump the rocks. From there, the downfall and downbreak of the rocks of various sizes into smaller pieces began. They were passing the jaw crusher and ending up at the bottom, where the pieces were finally powderized under stamps. Two five-stamp settings are there to do the job. We walked down the stairs, floor by floor, to explore the technical details including the well-preserved belt system, bull wheels and the cams and eccentrics that raised and dropped the stamps. The stamp system still works and was demonstrated to us by manually pulling the associated pelton wheel. The stamp mill operated during times, when mercury was still in use here to separate the gold from milled ore.

Next to the stamp tables, on which gold was separated from the crushed quartz and rocks by amalgamation (alloying), is an exit door. Before leaving the stamp mill, I looked up one more time, to spot some of the Townsend's big-eared bats roosting in corners high above wheels and belts.

Asking final questions, members of the tour group exited the mill.  Now, everyone was on his or her own again to check for snakes. Visitors not encountering a snake on the grounds may be interested in seeing the rattlesnake decorating a clampers antique hat on display in the museum.

Sign on Highway 49 for Kentucky Mine Historic Park

Museum

The small, awe-inspiring museum is part of the Bigelow House, a replica of a 19th century hotel.

Location

Find the park & museum at the end of Kentucky Mine Road, a short incline off the Golden Chain Highway (Hwy 49) between Bassetts Station and downtown Sierra City:

100 Kentucky Mine Road
Sierra City, CA 96125

$1 museum admission and $7 tour fee for adults (free for children 6 and under, $3.50 for children ages 7-17).

Kentucky Mine Stamp Mill with trestle

References and more to explore

[1] Kentucky Mine Historic Park & Museum. National Geographic - Sierra Nevada Geotourism.  Link: www.sierranevadageotourism.org/content/kentucky-mine-historic-park-amp-museum/sie9339b2a13f3daefe1.
[2] Kentucky Mine and Museum. Backcountry Explorers. Link: www.backcountryexplorers.com/kentucky-mine-museum.html.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Martis Creek Loop: in-between and beyond

Map of Martis Creek Wildlife Area: the social and official trails that branch off from the loop into pine forest and Northstar neighborhoods are not shown on this map
The Martis Creek Loop is an easy, 4.1-mile long round-trip trail around the Martis Creek Wildlife Area, located between Truckee and Northstar, California. For a nature stroll, you may want to try Martis Creek Trail, which leads from the Trailhead at Highway 267 (southeast from Martis Dam Road junction) through boggy habitat alongside Martis Creek to Pappe's Bridge. From there, you can walk back to the trailhead on the loop trail by either taking the shorter section (continuing clockwise) or the large section (anti-clockwise). The Tompkins Memorial Trail (TMT) and the Martis Creek Loop share trail sections. Off-loop trails connect with the Porcupine Hill area, the Northstar neighborhoods and Martis Camp.

Before presenting hiking suggestions and a few snaphots based on my mid-April hikes in the Martis Creek/Northstar area, I like to start with some notes about the very popular Martis Creek Trail.

Martis Creek
Martis Creek on a spring day

Loved to Death?

This question is asked on the “Martis Creek Trail” interpretive board at the trailhead, which tells us that the original trail along the creek was never properly constructed:

It originated as a cattle path and was converted to a hiking trail. Sections of the trail have fallen into the creek, leading to an excessive amount of sediment in the water. This can adversely affect aquatic insects and fish.

The most affected trail sections have been rerouted away from the creek through a cooperative restoration effort. Since this very popular, heavily used trail traverses such fragile habitat, biking the trail is prohibited and visitors are asked to stay off of the old trail sections, avoid the trail when it is muddy and also consider other trail options when bringing dogs during the prime bird nesting season from May to mid-July.

Tomkins Memorial Trail (TMT)
Tomkins Trail: downhill alongside pine cones and over boardwalk to Pappe's Bridge

Get your feet wet

So, skip Martis Creek Trail—when really wet—and get your feet wet on the perimeter loop. Early in the season, the loop trail often is partially flooded. As you walk on Tomkins Trail downhill to its junction with Martis Creek Trail, you will arrive at a boardwalk that may partially or completely be under wet snow or meltwater. 


buttercups
Water-plantain buttercups

Explore wildflowers

Buttercup flowers like creeksides and wet meadows. Alongside the trail between Pappe's Bridge and Jake's Bridge I found various patches of water-plantain buttercups. With their bright yellow, shiny petals, they can't be missed. Less abundant, Beckwith violets were growing nearby at drier spots between sagebrushes. Each flower was showing its yellow throats below the two dark-purple upper petals.

Beckwith violets

Pappe's Bridge

Martis Creek staff gauge (April 20, 2018)
Pappe's Bridge crosses Martis Creek. Look out for the staff gauge with its 1/50th foot graduation marks, which allows to measure the water level quite accurately. A picnic table invites you to rest at the creek bank.




Jake's Bridge

Next to Jake's Bridge is a bench with a memorial plaque: Leslee McElroy loved to take her dog, Dusty, to Jake's Bridge and watch him play in the creek. This point is a trail T-junction. Either path alongside the creek will lead you to Jake's Bridge.
Jake's Bridge and Dusty's pleasure ground




Take the northeast-leading trail, which is the Tomkins Memorial Trail section, to follow the perimeter loop. Take the southwest-leading path towards Martis Camp if you like to explore a side-loop. Before getting to Martis Camp, you will arrive at an easy-to-miss junction. Take the right branch uphill into the pine forest. The trail bends and meets the TMT (the Y-junction shown below) a short distance away from Pappe's Bridge.


Y-junction southeast from Pappe's bridge with two options to Jake's Bridge: TMT bends left

Sunday, March 25, 2018

Hidden Cave Tours and Trails east of Fallon, Nevada

Path between boulders and walls with tufa formations, to the left from the Hidden Cave entrance
Hidden Cave is located south of the Stillwater Wildlife Refuge east of Fallon in Churchill County, Nevada. Hidden Cave is not just hidden—it is locked! But entry can be arranged: on the second and fourth Saturdays of each month (with the exception of federally recognized holidays) the BLM offers free public tours. Before going on tour, visitors typically watch a special video at the Churchill County Museum and then caravan out to the cave site. When I visited the cave with a Reno geology group, we were lucky to have—in addition to our knowledgeable group geologist—an enthusiastic and well-versed BLM tour guide, who brought to light the history and archaeological significance of this Ice-Age cave.
Hidden Cave entrance: Bend down and watch your head
Wooden walkways allow access to the archaeological excavation sites. Stratigraphical structures are clearly visible, marked and described. Found items and placed labels have been left for educational and interpretive purpose. Visually, we get an idea of how the history of the cave and the Lake Lahontan area unfolded during the excavation days. For example, a distinct layer of deposited volcanic ash—the Mazama ash layer—indicates the 6,900 BCE eruption of Mount Mazama, resulting in the caldera of Crater Lake, Orgeon.

Distinct layer of Mazama ash
A handout that we received at the Churchill County Museum provides a brief chronology of events in relation to what came to light by studying deposits and items preserved therein. The cave is said to be formed by wave action from Pleistocene Lake Lahontan. Between 21,000 to 10,000 BCE, the cave was alternately submerged beneath and exposed above the fluctuating Ice-Age lake. During the following three millenia, Lake Lahontan was receding and the environment of the cave changed from marsh to a more desert-like land. From 3,800 BCE to the near present, the cave was use as a “cache” site by Native Americans. Archaeologist uncovered both tools and food. We were told it was never used for shelter.
Mustard-colored lichen on red-white scoria
Visitors to Hidden Cave get a lot to explore. Even without joining a scheduled tour, the interpretive trails and views are worth a visit. The system of short trails includes loops and dead-end trails connecting Picnic Cave, Hidden Cave and Burnt Cave. Picnic Cave actually is a rock shelter. Its walls and ceiling feature interesting tufa formations. Alongside a path between the trailhead and the Hidden Cave entrance you will come across scoria, a large mass of reddish gravel from Lake Lahontan's shoreline. These vesicular basal gravels are cemented together with tufa. Often, colorful lichen patterns introduce more structural complexity to the scoria mosaic. Some petroglyph images that you can spot from the trail are assumed to depict the wildlife of the Hidden Cave area. Others look like doodles, but you may wonder if you are standing in front of alien art or ancient cryptography—messages, reminders, pointers or pins on boulders.  


Petroglyphs next to the trail leading to Picnic Cave

Getting to the Cave-Tour Trailhead

Hidden Cave is part of the Grimes Point Archaeological Area. From the Churchill County Museum on 1050 S. Maine St., drive north through the historical downtown district and turn right onto US Highway 50. Follow the highway for approximately twelve miles and turn left, where a sign points to the archaeological site. There are restrooms and picnic tables available at Grimes Point, from where you may explore petroglyph rocks. To continue to Hidden Cave, follow the well-graded dirt road (eastbound for 1.5 miles) and find the signed trailhead on your right.


Hidden Cave Trailhead seen from Picnic Cave

Suggested reading

[1] Hidden Cave, Nevada. Division of Anthropology. Link: research.amnh.org/anthropology/research/naa/hidden_cave.
[2] Hidden Cave at Grimes Point. Atlas Oscura. Link: www.atlasobscura.com/places/hidden-cave-at-grimes-point.
[3] Grimes Point/Hidden Cave Archaeological Site. BLM. Link: www.blm.gov/visit/grimes-point-hidden-cave-site.

Saturday, February 3, 2018

Palomarin Beach Trail: from eucalyptus stands to foreshore cobbles

Foreshore rocks at Palomarin Beach: smooth and mollusk-sculpted cobbles

Palomarin Beach Trail
Palomarin Beach is located at the southern end of Point Reyes National Seashore, California. To get to the beach, hike the 0.6-mile-long Palomarin Beach Trail downhill from its junction with Coast Trail. The junction is found in the shade of eucalyptus trees. See the elongated eucalyptus leaves around the signpost in the picture farther below. Some trees show multi-trunked growth. Once leaving the eucalyptus grove, the trail winds down through coastal scrub and clearings with views of the cliff and ocean scenery. After managing a short, but steep trail section to finally be at beach level, you probably want to switch from hiking into beachcombing and rockstepping mode. At low tide, tidepooling at Abolone Point farther north makes for a great foreshore experience.

A cobble with cavities carved out by mollusks
Along the pebbly beach, one not only finds polished and textured rocks of different size, but also sculpted rocks. Those shale and sandstone rocks have a surface with an often dense coverage of thumb-size drill holes—not made by human sculptors, but by rock-boring pholad clams, which, while holding on with their foot, rhythmically move the toothed edge of their shell back and forth and thus excavate a circular cavity [1]. A boring mollusk finally settles, continues to grow and becomes tied to the cavity. Some of the cavities in the cobble shown above still contain shell parts of once-encased living mollusks.
   
A crab using a turban snail shell for protective armor

While certain mollusks escape predation by boring themselves into a soft rock, a crab such as a hermit crab may occupy an empty gastropod shell for protection. Near Abalone Point I saw a crab with a four-whorl turban-snail house wandering on the ground underneath the surface of the gently forward-swashing and backwashing shoreline water.


Signpost with eucalyptus leaves

Getting there

From Stinson Beach, drive north on Highway 1. At the northern tip of Bolinas Lagoon, turn left onto Olema-Bolina Road and after 1.5 miles turn right onto Mesa Road. Drive to the Point Reyes Bird Observatory bend. Continue on the dirt road section of Mesa Road. Depending on your vehicle clearance and possible wash-outs, you may either want to look out for parking (and walk the dirt road) or continue the last one mile to the end, which is the trailhead for Coast Trail. Start out northbound on Coast Trail and find the signed Palomarin Beach Trail junction after less than a mile.
 
Palomarin Beach
Palomarin Beach: a place for relaxation and exploration

References and more to explore

[1] Jules Evens: In the Splash Zone at Point Reyes. Bay Nature, May 26, 2012 [https://baynature.org/article/in-the-splash-zone-at-point-reyes/]. 
[2] Learn About Crabs & Relatives: http://www.asnailsodyssey.com/LEARNABOUT/CRAB/crabHerm.php.
[3] Point Reyes Mollusks: https://www.nps.gov/pore/learn/nature/mollusks.htm.
[4] Jon Erlandson: 12,000 Years of Hunan Predation on Black Turban Snails (Chlorostoma funebralis) on Alta California's Northern Channel Islands [https://www.academia.edu/16892345/12_000_Years_of_Human_Predation_on_Black_Turban_Snails_Chlorostoma_funebralis_on_Alta_Californias_Northern_Channel_Islands].

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Saturday, January 27, 2018

Take a walk through the Cypress Tree Tunnel at Point Reyes and explore the “wireless giant of the Pacific”

Cypress Tree Tunnel to KPH Station

Ornamental work at KPH entrance
Looking for Monterey cypress trees north of the Monterey peninsula? What about the Point Reyes peninsula north of San Francisco? There you can find weatherproof cypress trees branching out next to the trail leading to the lighthouse. And just off the Sir Francis Drake Boulevard—between Inverness and the lighthouse headlands—is the “tunnel” of giant Monterey cypress trees. This is the driveway to a historic wireless telegraph station—the civilian RCA/Marconi Station, also named KPH Maritime Receiving Station [1-3].


Everything intact? The KPH backside (November 2017)

As Morse code messaging declined and new technologies advanced, the station was retired in the late 1990s. It is currently preserved and cared for by the National Park Service and volunteers from the Maritime Radio Historical Society. A flyer posted onto the station's front door summarizes the history of and the current activities at the KPH station:

KPH began providing telegram service to ships at sea in 1905 from the Palace Hotel in San Francisco (thus the PH in the call sign). It continued that service until operations ended at this location on 30 June 1997.

There were hundreds of stations like KPH around the world. KPH was one of the biggest, called by some the “wireless giant of the Pacific.” One by one the lights went out at these stations. Bulldozers were waiting to demolish the buildings and antennas and build condominiums and golf courses. But KPH remained intact.

In 1999 the Maritime Radio Historical Society, in cooperation with the Point Reyes National Seashore, began a project to restore KPH to operation - the first and only a coast station left for dead has been returned to life.

Today KPH is on the air every Saturday from 12:00pm to 4:00pm. Please join us to see the only remaining civilian coast station in the world in full operation.

For more information call 414-990-7090 or send an email to: kph@radiomarine.org.


Getting there

From Olema or the Bear Valley Visitor Center, follow the direction given to get to the lighthouse trailhead. Halfway between Inverness and the end of Sir Francis Drake Blvd.—past G Ranch—look out for the sign reading “North District Operations Center - Historic RCA Building Established Circa 1929.” Find parking. The Cypress Tunnel is on the right side of the road.


References and more to explore

[1] JoshMc: Cypress Tree Tunnel in Point Reyes National Seashore.  “California through my Lens” blog post: californiathroughmylens.com/cypress-tree-tunnel.
[2] National Park Service: Historic KPH Maritime Radio Receiving Station and Cypress Tree Tunnel. Web-page: www.nps.gov/pore/planyourvisit/kph_treetunnel.htm.
[3] Roadside America: Cypress Tree Tunnel. Web-page: www.roadsideamerica.com/story/55705.